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韩铁路工会将无限期罢工 3年前曾创纪录罢工73天

時間: 2017年06月05日 | 作者: admin | 來源: 未知

撰文︰Christopher Intagliata

翻譯︰陳旭琦

審校︰吳非

統籌李軒

 

Residents of the southern U.S. might be familiar with this dusty summer phenomenon

[TV Weather montage: "We are breathing dust that at one point originated over Africa… Dust particles are carried 15,000 feet into the atmosphere… Another dust cloud from Africa's Sahara Desert has made it all the way to Houston."]

美國南部的居民可能對這種夏天塵土飛揚的現象很熟悉[電視上天氣預報的聲音︰“我們正在呼吸著從非洲而來的灰塵……這些粉塵被攜帶至15000英尺(4572米高的大氣中……另一團來自非洲撒哈拉沙漠的塵雲已經抵達休斯頓。”]

 

The dust clouds surf on trade winds towards the Caribbean. And since the dust is rich in minerals, like iron, it's like an airborne delivery of fertilizer to marine life there.

信風將塵雲吹向加勒比海地區。由于沙塵中的含鐵礦物豐富,這些通過空氣運輸的沙塵成為加勒比海地區海洋生物的肥料。

 

"So when you get this pulse of iron that comes, it's a micronutrient, a trace metal that's needed by all of life that's all of a sudden available, at least for a short amount of time." Erin Lipp, a microbiologist at the University of Georgia. She and her team studied the phenomenon, sampling waters in Barbados and the Florida Keys.  And they found that these fertilizer dumps seem to encourage bacterial blooms. Including Vibrio species, some of which can cause cholera or food poisoning.

“鐵是一種所有生物都不可或缺的微量營養元素所以當鐵元素被送達時,至少是在短時間內,這一區域的鐵含量突然變得十分充沛。”佐治亞大學的微生物學家Erin Lipp介紹道。為了研究了這種現象,她和她的團隊對巴巴多斯和弗羅里達群島的水域進行采樣。他們發現這些沉降至海水中的肥料似乎有助于細菌數量的暴發。這其中包括弧菌(Vibrio),一些弧菌可以造成霍亂或者食物中毒。

 

"Vibrio and probably other bacteria that are really capable of responding to this feast that's provided to them, they just use it quite rapidly. So within that first 24 hours you see a very big population spike of these bacteria." A spike of five to 30 times their usual numbers. The finding is in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [Jason R. Westrich et al., Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters]

“弧菌,或許還有其他細菌,享受這道營養盛宴,它們的進食速度很快。所以你可以看到,細菌數量在最初的24小時內快速增加。”其數量是平時數量的5到30倍。這一發現發表于《美國國家科學院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)。

 

If all this makes you want to skip the oysters after a sandstorm, "I would say that is a personal decision. But summer in general is the riskiest time to eat oysters." For now, she says, there's really no evidence to link Saharan dust to your risk of a bum oyster. So keep calm, and slurp on.

如果這讓你放棄食用沙暴後的牡蠣,“我想說,這是個人的選擇。但是總體上,夏季食用牡蠣風險最高”Erin表示,目前並沒有證據證明撒哈拉的沙塵和食用牡蠣的風險之間有任何關系。所以保持冷靜,享用美食。

 

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