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壳牌第三季度调整后净利润47.7亿美元超市场预估

時間: 2017年04月19日 | 作者: admin | 來源: 未知

A thermal spike linked to the solar system’s largest storm explains weather on gas-giant planets

太陽系最大風暴所引發的熱峰,可解釋氣體巨星上氣象的成因。

 

撰文/播音  Lee Billings

翻譯 郭豐茹

審校 丁可含

 

For most people, Jupiter’s most recognizable—and mysterious—feature is the Great Red Spot. For centuries, astronomers have watched the storm spin across the giant world’s face.

對很多人來講,“大紅斑”是木星最有特點和神秘感的標志。幾個世紀以來,天文學家一直可以觀測到暴風橫掃氣體巨星表面的景象。

But for planetary scientists, Jupiter’s most distinctive mystery may be what’s called the “energy crisis” of its upper atmosphere: how do temperatures average about as warm as Earth’s even though the enormous planet is more than five times further away from the sun?

但是對于行星科學家來說,木星最獨特的奧秘可能是上層大氣層的“能源危機”︰盡管木星與太陽的距離是地球的五倍多,但為什麼它的平均溫度和地球的相當呢?

All the sun’s giant planets display this energy crisis, and those in chilly orbits around other stars probably have it, too. So where does the energy to heat their upper atmospheres come from?

太陽系中所有的巨行星都有這樣的能量危機,而且在其他星系寒冷軌道上運轉的行星可能也如此。那麼,這些加熱上層大氣的能量從哪里來呢?

According to a new study, the energy must originate within the giants, get transported upward and become amplified by turbulent storms. The finding appears in the journal Nature. [James O'Donoghue et al., Heating of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot]

This offers a new window into Jupiter’s depths, and should allow researchers to better understand gas-giant atmospheres throughout the universe. And it’s all connected to the Great Red Spot.

一項新的研究表明,這些能量來源于行星內部,向上傳播,受猛烈的暴風影響而增強。這項研究結果見報于《自然》雜志。[James O'Donoghue et al., Heating of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot] 這為木星內部研究提供了新視角,應有助于探究宇宙中其他氣體巨行星的大氣形成。這一切都與大紅斑有關。

Astronomers have long known that auroral displays can heat Jupiter’s poles, where charged particles trapped in the planet’s intense magnetic field slam into its upper atmosphere. Some theorists thought this auroral heating could flow toward the equator to warm the planet’s mid-latitudes. So, using NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility, astronomers observed Jupiter for nine hours, looking for these flows as thermal fluctuations in the planet’s upper atmosphere.

But they saw none.

天文學家已經知道,極光的出現可以加熱木星的兩極。在那里帶電粒子會被被行星的強磁場捕獲沖入上層大氣層。有些理論家認為,極光加熱的空氣可以流向赤道從而使中緯度地帶升溫。因此,為了尋找木星上層大氣層中的熱量流,天文學家用美國宇航局NASA)的紅外望遠鏡設備木星進行長達9小時的觀測,但並未觀測到。

Instead, in Jupiter’s mid-latitudes they spied a thermal spike 800 kilometers above the Great Red Spot, where temperatures soared hundreds of degrees higher than the surroundings. The best way to explain this spike is from the swirling maelstrom below, where turbulent atmospheric waves must generate heat by crashing together like breakers on a windy beach shore. Though this must be a planet-wide phenomenon, it is most obvious directly over Jupiter’s largest, most powerful storm.

在木星中緯度地帶,他們在“大紅斑”上方800千米的位置探測到一個熱峰,那里的溫度比周圍高出幾百度。這個熱峰來源于大漩渦底部,渦流攪亂大氣層,通過踫撞產生熱量,就像海浪沖刷著多風的海岸。盡管這個氣候現象普遍存在于行星中,但在木星最大最強勁的暴風上方最明顯。

As alien as it seems, scientists have seen the same behavior on much smaller, gentler scales here on Earth, when thunderheads rising over mountain ranges create rippling waves that heat the air above.

—Lee Billings

[The above text is a transcript of this podcast.]

這看似陌生,其實科學家們已經在地球上觀測到這一現象,只是規模較小、不那麼明顯。例如,當山間升起積雨雲時,形成的漣漪便會加熱上空的空氣。

原文鏈接︰http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/great-red-spot-helps-explain-jupiter-s-warm-upper-atmosphere/