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海南降低非居民天然气销售价格

時間: 2017年04月10日 | 作者: admin | 來源: 未知

撰文/播音 Christopher Intagliata 

翻譯  張旭陽

審校  楊一森  

The whales appear to prefer the company of "like-minded" individuals, based on common vocal clicking behavior—an example of culture, researchers say. Christopher Intagliata reports

研究人員表示鯨似乎更願意跟有著相似輕唱行為的同類相處鯨群中的一種文化。

We humans are social creatures—we stick together. Family traditionally came first. Then more distant relatives. Then larger groups of unrelated individuals, connected by culture. But it turns out the same could be said for sperm whales. "So usually you find the female, and their mom and the grandmas and their aunts, and they all stay together for many years."

我們人類是社會性生物——我們相互扶持、團結一致。傳統觀念中,家庭才是第一位的,排在家庭之後的是距離稍遠的親戚,大批靠文化聯系的沒有親緣關系的人就要再靠後站了。對抹香鯨來說,這樣的親疏關系同樣適用。“所以你經常會發現雌性抹香鯨會和它們的母親、外婆以及七大姑八大姨共同生活好多年。

Maur cio Cantor, a biologist at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He says those closely related family groups then seek out other families with similar behavior: "They tend to hang out or stay together with those who produce the same kinds of sounds." <<whale clicking sound>> Meaning whale cliques are based on producing similar clicks.

戴爾豪斯大學的生物學家毛利西? 康托(Maur cio Cantor)說,那些聯系密切的家庭群體會尋找行為類似的其他家庭群體“抹香鯨們喜歡跟聲音相似的同類一起玩耍或相處。”這意味著鯨的圈子是靠相似發聲維系的。

And similarly clicking whales don't just hang out together, he says. They also emulate each other's songs, or codas. Meaning clans of whales evolve their own dialects—their own form of culture. And these dialects are key. Cantor and colleagues built a computer simulation of generation after generation of virtual whales. And they found that no other factor—like genetics or mother-daughter teaching—could explain the emergence of the clans and dialects in real sperm whale society. The study appears in the journal Nature Communications. [Mauricio Cantor et al, Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission]

康托還表示,發聲相似的鯨不僅僅會一起游戲,它們還會模仿彼此的歌聲或尾音。 也就意味著鯨的氏族會發展出它們獨有的方言——它們獨有的文化形式。這些方言十分關鍵。Cantor和它的同事計算機模擬了虛擬鯨世代繁衍 。他們沒有發現其他因素比如基因或家庭教育可以解釋鯨類氏族的起源以及真實抹香鯨社會中的方言。研究成果發表在《自然?通訊》Nature Communications雜志上。[Mauricio Cantor et al, Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission]

"I'm not trying to say that the types of culture the whale has are the same as human culture. Obviously human culture is much more diverse and complex and cumulative and symbolic. But it's very fascinating just to see that they can have some type of similarities, they can have their own type of culture." And maybe a better understanding of that whale culture, he says, might persuade a few human cultures to be a bit more conservation-minded, when it comes to whales.

“我並不是要試圖說明鯨的文化和人類的文化相同。很顯然,人類的文化更為復雜多變,更具累積性與象征性。但是發現抹香鯨與我們的某種相似性,發現抹香鯨也擁有自己的文化,這是一件令人奇的事 康托說。他還認為,更好地理解鯨的文化可能會說服處于某些文化 下的人能用保護的眼光看待鯨。

原文鏈接︰

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/sperm-whales-congregate-in-click-based-cliques/