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浦发银行:前三季营收为1463.86亿元 同比增长15.4%

時間: 2017年03月28日 | 作者: 克里斯托弗?因塔 | 來源: 環球科學(huanqiukexue.com)

Honeybee stings are painful. But they’re also…fragrant. “If a beekeeper gets stung by bees, it smells like banana.” Dr. Stefan D?tterl, a plant ecologist at the University of Salzburg in Austria.

被蜜蜂蟄傷會讓你痛苦萬分,但與此同時,你會聞到芳香味。“如果一個養蜂人被蜜蜂蟄傷,那聞起來就像香蕉,”奧地利薩爾茨堡大學植物生態學家斯蒂芬?達特博士說。

 

That banana scent, he says, is a compound called isoamyl acetate also known as banana oil. It’s one of many compounds produced when a bee stings a mix of alarm pheromones that let the hive know that another bee’s in danger.

他說,香蕉的氣味來自一種叫乙酸異戊酯的化合物,也被人稱作香蕉油。它是蜜蜂蟄傷產生的化合物之一。蜜蜂造成蟄傷時會釋放一系列混合的報警信息素,告知蜂群有一只蜜蜂處于危險之中。

 

But that chemical cocktail doesn’t just attract other bees. It also draws tiny flies known as kleptoparasites, “or so-called ‘food stealers’.” The flies feed on the drippings of bees being devoured by spiders. And they sense the bees’ chemical calls for help as a dinner bell.

但是這杯化學“雞尾酒”不僅吸引其他蜜蜂,也會吸引一些被稱作“竊食者”的小型蠅類。這種蠅類以掉落的正在被蜘蛛吞噬的蜜蜂殘骸為食。它們感知蜜蜂發出的化學物質以此作為晚餐的信號(蜜蜂發出的求救信號,就是它們的晚餐鈴聲)。

 

Turns out, though, it’s not the flies…but a flower that has the last word in this tale of trickery. Because researchers have now discovered that the flower of a South African plant called the parachute plant produce nearly three dozen of the 90-some compounds in that honeybee alarm call. Meaning they mimic the scent of a honeybee in danger—to lure in and temporarily trap the flies, as a pollination ploy. The findings are in the journal Current Biology. [Annemarie Heiduk et al., Ceropegia sandersonii Mimics Attacked Honeybees to Attract Kleptoparasitic Flies for Pollination]

然而,這個欺騙故事的最終主角不是這些蠅類,而是一種花。研究者發現,蜜蜂報警信息素包含了90多種化合物,而一種名為醉龍(Ceropegia sandersonii)的南非植物的的花朵可以制造其中的三分之一。這表明,它們模仿了蜜蜂處于危險時散發的氣味,以此來引誘蠅類為自身授粉。這項發現發表在《現代生物學》(Current Biology)上 [Annemarie Heiduk et al., Ceropegia sandersonii Mimics Attacked Honeybees to Attract Kleptoparasitic Flies for Pollination]。